Direct Speech Refers to reproducing another person’s exact words or saying exactly what someone has said (sometimes called quoted speech).

We use quotation marks (“______________”) and it should be word for word.

Indirect speech Refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s words that doesn’t use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word.

Indirect speech is sometimes called reported speech.

The tense usually changes when reporting speech. This is because we are usually talking about a time in the past and obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past.

The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too

For example:

Direct speech Indirect speech

Present simple Past simple

Vita said, “I eat fried rice”. Vita said that she ate fried rice.

Past simple Past Perfect

Mother said, “I went to market yesterday”. Mother said (that) she had gone to market the day before.

Future simple Past Future

Lea said, “I am going to wash my clothes”. Lea said (that) she was going to wash her clothes.

Dave said, “I will buy an I-Pod next week”. Dave said (that) he would buy an I-Pod the week after.

Present continuous Past continuous

Gama said, “I am playing football”. Gama said he was playing football.

Past continuous Past perfect continuous

She said, “I was teaching earlier.” She said she had been teaching earlier.

v When we want to report what someone said, we do not usually repeat their exact words, we use our words. We can use reporting verbs, such as tell, say, ask followed by ‘that-clause’.

Example: My mother said that she got up at 4 o’clock.

v When reporting verbs is in the Present, Present Perfect, or Future, there is no change of tense in the words reported.

Example: She will tell you

She says (that) she doesn’t know.

She has just said

In time expressions and pronouns
Direct speech
Indirect speech




Last week

Next week

Ago Then

That day/that night

The day before/the previous day

The next/following day

The previous week

The following week/the week after



Pronouns That/those


They change according to the context

v Sometimes we need to report someone’s questions. The reported question are introduced with the verb ask, inquire, wonder, want to know, etc.
Yes-No questions Ask + if/whether + subject + verb

Wonder etc.
“Do you speak English?”

- He wondered if I spoke English.
Wh-questions Ask + question word + subject + verb

Wonder etc.
“What are you watching?”

- She asked what I am watching.



Narrative text is a kind of text that has function to entertain, create, stimulate emotions, motivate, guide, and teach the reader which contains about story (fiction/non fiction/tales/folktales/ fables/myths/epic) and in its plot consists of climax of the story (complication) then followed by the resolution.

The generic structure of narrative text :

v Orientation

Function : It sets the scene and introduces the participants(it answers the question = who, when, what, where.)

v Evaluation

Function : A stepping back to evaluate the plight (the information about the narrator’s point of view) ; it is optional.

v Complication

Function : A crisis or a problem arises. It usually involves the main characters.

v Resolution

Function : A solution to the problem (for better or for worse). Main characters find ways to solve the problem.

The kinds of narrative text :

v Myth

A tradisional story which may describe the origins of the world, a place, and / or of people. It is considered a true sacred in he remote past.

v Legend

A true story primarily about human heroes in the recent past and may feature some religious reference.

v Folktale

A story which is regarded as fiction. It can be a non-sacred fictional story that occurs “once upon the time“ and features human and nonhuman characters.

v Folklore

A collection of fictional tales about people and / or animals. It include myth and tales.

Example: The story of Cinderella, Snow White, Snow Maiden, The Little Pear Girl, The Ugly Duckling, etc.


Suprise of diesbelief is a feeling that we feel when we read or heard an amazing news which suprised and amazed us.

To express surprise or disbelief :
What a surprise! That’s a surprise!
(Well), that’s very surprising!
Are you serious? You must be joking!
You’re kidding!
Fancy that!
I must say … surprises me.
I find that hard to believe.

When you got a surprising fact, you can say :
Do you know what?
Believe it or not?
You may not believe it, but …
Can you believe this?

You can respond to the surprising fact using these expressions :
Are you joking?
Where? Show me


Descriptive text is a kind of text that has functions to describe a particular thing, place, or person.

The generic structure of descriptive text :

(a) Identification / ClassificationFunction : To mention or to identificate the particular thing, place, or persons hat will be describe in the text.

(b) Description
Function : To describe or mention some characteristic of particular thing, place, or person.

The language features of descriptive text :

v Focus on specific participants

v Use of attributive and identifying processes

v Frequent use of epithets and classifier in nominal groups

v Use of simple present tense.

Example of Descriptive Text:

Identification :My Pets

We have three family pets: a dog, a cat, and a tortoise.

Descriptions :
The dog’s name is Benjamin. He is big golden Labrador. He is beautiful. He has big brown eyes and a long tail. He is very friendly dog, but he is sometimes a little stupid. Dogs are expensive to keep but they are fun to play with.

Our cat is named Martha. She is quite young, but she is not a kitten. She is very pretty. She has black and white fur and green eyes. She’s smart, too and very clean.

The tortoise’s name is Rocky. He has short, fat legs, a long neck, and a very hard shell. He is also very old and slow. He’s ugly and dirty, but I like him.


Gratitude is expression that used to said thank you to other people.
Kind of gratitude expression are:
• Thank you very much
• Thanks
• I’m grateful to….
• I want to thank.
• I want to express my gratitude to….
• I keep forgetting to thank you for… .
Respond of expressing:
• You are welcome.
• Don’t mention it.
• Not at all.
• It was nothing at all.
• No problem.
• Glad to be of help.
• (it was) my pleasure.
• I’m glad I could help.
• I’m glad I could do it.
• I’m glad I could be of help.
Compliment is expression that used to give praising to other people. Some people use compliment to better up someday or to flatter in order to increase good will.
 What a nice dress.
 You look great.
 You look very nice.
 I really must express my administration for you….
 Good grades.
 Excellent.
 Nice work.
Time to express compliment:
 On his/her general appearance.
 If you notice something new about the person’s appearance.
 When you visit someone’s house for the first time.
 When other people do their the best.
Congratulation is expression that used to said congratulate to someone when get a successes.
o Let me congratulate you.
o Congratulations on your successful business.
o My congratulations on your success.
o Congratulation on your promotion.
o Good!
o That’s great!
o Isn’t that wonderful!
o How fortunate.
o Splendid!
o Pretty good!
o Thank you.
o Thanks, I needed that.
o That’s very kind of you to say that.
o Do you really think so?
o You’ve made my day!
o The same to you.
o I’m glad you like it.
o Thank you. It’s nice of you to say so.


Hi guys, this is simple future tense. It is used for describing job or action that will to do (happened) at future. Simple future has two different forms in English : “will” and “be going to”
Positive (+) S + shall/will + verb I

Example : I shall read a novel.
They will go now.
(+) S + to be + going to + verb I
Example : He is going to close the window.
Negative (-) S + shall/will + not + verb I + O
Example : I shall not eat it.
They will not come.
(-) S + to be + not + going to + verb I + O
Example : She is not going to teach her student tomorrow.
Interrogative (?) Will + S + verb I + O
Example : Will he walk to market ?
(?) To be + S + going to + verb I
Example : Are they listen the music ?


What is noun phrase? Do you know guys? Yeah, noun phrase are formed by a noun or pronoun and any modifiers, compelemnts, or determiners.
Example :
The most beautiful ring
The greatest King
An ugly cat
A lovely jacket
The determinative, that constituent which determines the reference of the noun phrase in its situational.
The premodification, which comprises all modifying or describing constituents before the head, other than the determiners.
The head, around which the other constituents cluster.

The structure of Noun Phrase:
Noun phrase : pre-modifiers + noun
Noun phrase : noun + post-modifier
Noun phrase : pre-modifiers + noun + post-modifier
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